Statistics for Environmental Engineers

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Cryer, J. D. (1986). Time Series Analysis, Boston, Duxbury Press.


Esterby, S. R. (1993). “Trend Analysis Methods for Environmental Data,” Environmetrics, 4(4) 459-481.


Hipel, K. W., A. I. McLeod, and P. K. Fosu (1986). “Empirical Power Comparison of Some Tests for Trend,” pp. 347-362, in Statistical Aspects of Water Quality Monitoring, A. H. El-Shaarawi and R. E. Kwia-towski Eds., Amsterdam, Elsevier.


Pandit, S. M. and S. M. Wu (1983). Time Series and Systems Analysis with Applications, New York, John Wiley.


Wold, H. O. A. (1938). A Study in the Analysis of Stationary Time Series, 2nd ed. (1954), Uppsala, Sweden, Almquist and Wiskell.

Exercises


51.1 BOD Trend Analysis. The table below gives 16 years of BOD loading (lb/day) data for a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Plot the data. Difference the data to remove the upward trend. Examine the differenced data for a seasonal cycle. Calculate the autocorrelation function of the differenced data. Fit some simple times series models to the data.


Month


1991


1992


1993


1994


1995


1996


1997


1998


1999


2000


Jan.


63435


61670


57963


61250


70430


64166


65286


70499


68341


74237


Feb.


60846


68151


58334


66376


69523


68157


68596


76728


74079


79884


Mar.


60688


62522


60535


68986


75072


64836


68787


71968


70185


75395

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