Statistics for Environmental Engineers

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References


Berthouex, P. M. and I. Hau (1991). “Difficulties in Using Water Quality Standards Based on Extreme Percentiles,” Res. J. Water Pollution Control Fed., 63(5), 873-879.


Box, G. E. P., W. G. Hunter, and J. S. Hunter (1978). Statistics for Experimenters: An Introduction to Design, Data Analysis, and Model Building, New York, Wiley Interscience.


Draper, N. R. and H. Smith, (1998). Applied Regression Analysis, 3rd ed., New York, John Wiley.


Hahn, G. J. and S. S. Shapiro (1967). Statistical Methods for Engineers, New York, John Wiley.


Metcalf, A. V. (1997). Statistics in Civil Engineering, London, Arnold.


Peigorsch, W. W. and A. J. Bailer (1997). Statistics for Environmental Biology and Toxicology, New York, Chapman & Hall.


Press, W. H., B. P. Flannery, S. A. Tenkolsky, and W. T. Vetterling (1992). Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed., Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press.

Exercises


50.1    Limit of Detection. The Method Limit of Detection is calculated using MDL = 3.143^, where ^ is the standard deviation of measurements on seven identical aliquots. Use simulation to study how much the MDL can vary due to random variation in the replicate measurements if the true standard deviation is a = 0.4.


50.2    Nonconstant Variance. Chapter 37 on weighted least squares discussed a calibration problem where there were three replicate observations at several concentration levels. By how much can the variance of triplicate observations vary before one would decide that there is nonconstant variance? Answer this by simulating 500 sets of random triplicate observations, calculating the variance of each set, and plotting the histogram of estimated variances.

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