# Statistics for Environmental Engineers

Скачать в pdf «Statistics for Environmental Engineers»

The ASTM tolerances for grade A glassware are ±0.12 mL for a 250-mL flask, ±0.03 mL for a 25-mL pipette, and ± 0.05 mL for a 50-mL burette. If a piece of glassware is within the tolerance, but not exactly the correct weight or volume, there will be a systematic error. Thus, if the flask has a volume of 248.9 mL, this error will be reflected in the results of all the experiments done using this flask. Repetition will not reveal the error. If different glassware is used in making measurements on different specimens, random fluctuations in volume become a random error in the titration results.

The random errors in filling a 250-mL flask might be ± 0.05 mL, or only 0.02% of the total volume of the flask. The random error in filling a transfer pipette should not exceed 0.006 mL, giving an error of about 0.024% of the total volume (Miller and Miller, 1984). The error in reading a burette (of the conventional variety graduated in 0.1-mL divisions) is perhaps ± 0.02 mL. Each titration involves two such readings (the errors of which are not simply additive). If the titration volume is about 25 mL, the percentage error is again very small. (The titration should be arranged so that the volume of titrant is not too small.)

In skilled hands, with all precautions taken, volumetric analysis should have a relative standard deviation of not more than about 0.1%. (Until recently, such precision was not available in instrumental analysis.)

Systematic errors can be due to calibration, temperature effects, errors in the glassware, drainage errors in using volumetric glassware, failure to allow a meniscus in a burette to stabilize, blowing out a pipette that is designed to drain, improper glassware cleaning methods, and “indicator errors.” These are not subject to prediction by the propagation of error formulas.

Скачать в pdf «Statistics for Environmental Engineers»