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subnetwork A network that is part of another network. The connection is made through a gateway, bridge, or router.

subnetwork address A part of the 32-bit IPv4 address that designates the address of the subnetwork.

subscriber connector (SC) A type of fiber-optic connector. These connectors are square shaped and have release mechanisms to prevent the cable from accidentally being unplugged.

supernetting The process of combining multiple IP address ranges into a single IP network.

surge protector A device that contains a special electronic circuit that monitors the incoming voltage level and then trips a circuit breaker when an overvoltage reaches a certain level called the overvoltage threshold.

surge suppressors See surge protector.

switched A network that has multiple routes to get from a source to a destination. This allows for higher speeds.

symmetrical keys When the same key is used to encrypt and decrypt data.

SYN flood A Denial of Service attack in which the hacker sends a barrage of SYN packets. The receiving station tries to respond to each SYN request for a connection, thereby tying up all the resources. All incoming connections are rejected until all current connections can be established.

TCP See Transmission Control Protocol.

TCP/IP See Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.

TDMA See Time Division Multiple Access.

TDR See time-domain reflectometer.

telephony server A computer that functions as a smart answering machine for the network. It can also perform call center and call routing functions.

Telnet A protocol that functions at the Application layer of the OSI model, providing terminal emulation capabilities. See also Open Systems Interconnect.

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