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File Transfer Protocol (FTP) A TCP/IP protocol and software that permit the transferring of files between computer systems. Because FTP has been implemented on numerous types of computer systems, files can be transferred between disparate computer systems (for example, a personal computer and a minicomputer). See also Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol.

firewall A combination of hardware and software that protects a network from attack by hackers that could gain access through public networks, including the Internet.

FQDN See Fully Qualified Domain Name.

frame relay A WAN technology that transmits packets over a WAN using packet switching. See also packet switching.

frequency division multiplexing (FDM) A multiplexing technique whereby the different signals are sent across multiple frequencies.

FTP See File Transfer Protocol.

FTP proxy A server that uploads and downloads files from a server on behalf of a workstation.

full backup A backup that copies all data to the archive medium.

Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) An address that uses both the host name (workstation name) and the domain name.

gateway The hardware and software needed to connect two disparate network environments so that communications can occur.

global group A type of group in Windows NT that is used network-wide. Members can be from anywhere in the network, and rights can be assigned to any resource in the network.

ground loop A condition that occurs when a signal cycles through a common ground connection between two devices, causing EMI interference. See also electromagnetic interference.

hardware address A Data Link layer address assigned to every NIC at the MAC sublayer. The address is in the format xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx; each xx is a two-digit hexadecimal number. See also media access control, network interface card.

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