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brownout See power brownout.

bus Pathways in a PC that allow data and signals to be transmitted between the PC components. Types of buses include ISA and PCI.

bus topology A topology where the cable and signals run in a straight line from one end of the network to the other.

cable A physical transmission medium that has a central conductor of wire or fiber surrounded by a plastic jacket.

cable map General network documentation indicating each cable’s source and destination as well as where each network cable runs.

cable tester A special instrument that is used to test the integrity of LAN cables. See also time-domain reflectometer.

carrier Signal at a frequency that is chosen to carry data. Addition of data to the frequency is modulation and the removal of data from the frequency is demodulation. This is used on analog devices like modems.

Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) A media access method that sends a request to send (RTS) packet and waits to receive a clear to send (CTS) packet before sending. Once the CTS is received, the sender sends the packet of information.

Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) A media access method that first senses whether there is a signal on the wire, indicating that someone is transmitting currently. If no one else is transmitting, it attempts a transmission and listens for someone else trying to transmit at the same time. If this happens, both senders back off and don’t transmit again until some specified period of time has passed. See also collision.

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