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File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

FTP provides a mechanism for single or multiple file transfers between computer systems; when written in lowercase as “ftp,” it is also the name of the client software used to access the FTP server running on the remote host. The FTP package provides all the tools needed to look at files and directories, change to other directories, and transfer text and binary files from one system to another. FTP uses TCP to actually move the files. We’ll look at how to transfer files using FTP in detail in the next chapter.

Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)

TFTP is a “stripped down” version of FTP, primarily used to boot diskless workstations and to transfer boot images to and from routers. It uses a reduced feature set (fewer commands and a smaller overall program size). In addition to its reduced size, it also uses UDP instead of TCP, which makes for faster transfers, but with less reliability.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)

SMTP allows for a simple e-mail service and is responsible for moving messages from one e-mail server to another. The e-mail servers run either Post Office Protocol (POP) or Internet Mail Access Protocol (IMAP) to distribute e-mail messages to users.

Post Office Protocol (POP)

POP provides a storage mechanism for incoming mail; the latest version of the standard is known as POP3. When a client connects to a POP3 server, all the messages addressed to that client are downloaded; there is no way to download messages selectively. Once the messages are downloaded, the user can delete or modify messages without further interaction with the server. In some locations, POP3 is being replaced by another standard, IMAP.

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