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Link state routing protocols (like OSPF) work slightly differently. Whereas RIP routers will broadcast their entire routing table every 60 seconds, a link state router will send out to its “neighbors” only the changes to its routing table. Additionally, link state routers have a more directed relationship with their neighbors. Instead of broadcasting all of its information

to everyone on the internetwork, link state protocols (like OSPF) prefer to send only updates and a small amount of information to a specific list of addresses.


Of all the protocols listed in this chapter, no protocol is more flexible or more interoperable than TCP/IP. As the Internet gained popularity, everyone wanted to “get on the Net.” As such, almost every computer had to have two things: a web browser and some form of TCP/IP connection. Therefore, every computer that is connected to the Internet is running TCP/IP in one way or another. Many companies have used the TCP/IP protocol suite to communicate with one another over the Internet.

Additionally, because of this phenomenon, every operating system has some form of TCP/IP protocol stack and, as such, can communicate with other operating systems on some fundamental level.


TCP/IP hosts are named according to the DNS convention. DNS is a service that resolves names to IP addresses so that we can use friendly names like to refer to computers instead of unfriendly IP addresses like

There are two parts to a DNS name: the host name (e.g., www) and the domain name (e.g., Each of these components is separated by a period. Typically, you would assign a host name that says what the computer’s function is (i.e., www for a web server). The domain name, on the other hand, is usually the name of the company in which the computer resides, or some related name, followed by .com, .edu, .net, or any other domain suffix. You’ll learn more about DNS in Chapter 3.

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