Interdisciplinary Applied Mathematics

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Sample concentration is small compared to the buffer concentration, and the buffer concentration and buffer pH value are uniform.


When 0 < в < 90°, we say that the liquid is partially wetting or that the solid is hydrophilic.


Chemisorption, or chemical adsorption, is adsorption in which the forces involved are valence forces of the same kind as those operating in the formation of chemical compounds, and the elementary step in chemisorption often involves an activation energy.


   Two    or    more    clusters    that    formed    on    the    surface aggregated    to    form

a larger cluster.


The clusters dispersed when the field was turned off.

Figure 13.6 shows the colloidal arrays obtained by the electrophoretic deposition of 3.88 pm size polystyrene (PS) particles at a DC potential of


A multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT), made of several concentric nanotube shells.

Single-walled carbon nanotubes have emerged as a very promising new class of materials for a variety of applications. The diameter of a SWNT is about 0.7 nm to 10 nm, though most of the observed single-wall nanotubes have diameters less than 2 nm. The structure of a SWNT is one-dimensional with axial symmetry. A SWNT exhibits a spiral conformation, called chirality. The chirality is given by a single vector called the chiral vector, ch. The chirality vector connects crystallographically equivalent sites on a two-dimensional graphene sheet. The diameter and helicity of a defect-free SWNT are uniquely characterized by the chirality vector

Ch = nai + ma2 = (n, m),

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