Interdisciplinary Applied Mathematics

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FIGURE 1.24. T-junction flow of water and hexadecane (2% Span80) in submicron channels. Depending on the relative pressure in the channels, different patterns of droplets are formed due to an instability. (Courtesy of S. Quake and T. Thorsen.)


FIGURE 1.25. Front view of a gramicidin ion channel. Only the protein with the nanoscopic pore    is    shown.    The diameter    of    the    pore    is    4 A, and the length    is

25 A.

FIGURE 1.26. A schematic diagram of a nanopore-based DNA sequencing de

FIGURE 1.27. A schematic diagram of the crossed microfluidic channels separated by a nanometer-diameter capillary array interconnect. Upper right: the cross-sectional schematic of the nanocapillary. Lower right: schematic diagram showing the relative sizes of the channel diameter (denoted by a) and the Debye length (denoted by k-1) of the electrolyte solution. (Courtesy of P.W. Bohn.)





Boundary Elements


Force Coupling

FIGURE 1.28. Summary of simulation methods for liquid and gas microflows. MD refers to molecular dynamics, and DPD refers to dissipative particle dynamics.



MEMS / -fluidics

FIGURE 1.31. (A) Mask design for the microfluidic memory storage device. The chip contains an array of 25 x 40 chambers, each of which has a volume of 250 pl. Each chamber can be individually addressed using the column and row multiplexors. The contents of each memory location can be selectively programmed to be either blue dye (sample input) or water (wash buffer input). (B) Purging mechanics for a single chamber within a selected row of the chip. Each row contains three parallel microchannels. A specific chamber is purged as follows: (i) Pressurized fluid    is introduced    into    the    purge    buffer    input.    (ii)    The    row    multi

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