Structure and Interpretation of Signals and Systems

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Structure and Interpretation of Signals and Systems


Edward A. Lee and Pravin Varaiya eal@eecs.berkeley.edu, varaiya@eecs.berkeley.edu Electrical Engineering & Computer Science University of California, Berkeley


July 4, 2000


Copyright ©2000 Edward A. Lee and Pravin Varaiya All rights reserved

Contents


Preface    xiii


Notes to Instructors    xvii


1 Signals and Systems    1


1.1    Signals………………………………….. 2


1.1.1    Audio signals…………………………… 2


1.1.2    Images……………………………… 5


Probing further:    Household electrical power………………… 7


1.1.3    Video signals…………………………… 10


1.1.4    Signals representing physical attributes………………. 12


1.1.5    Sequences…………………………….. 13


1.1.6    Discrete signals and sampling…………………… 14


1.2    Systems…………………………………. 19


1.2.1    Systems as functions……………………….. 19


1.2.2    Telecommunications systems……………………. 20


Probing further:    Wireless communication…………………. 23


Probing further:    LEO telephony……………………… 24


Probing further:    Encrypted speech…………………….. 28


1.2.3    Audio storage and retrieval…………………….. 29


1.2.4    Modem negotiation………………………… 30


1.2.5    Feedback control system……………………… 31


1.3    Summary………………………………… 34


Defining Signals and Systems


2.1    Defining functions ……………………..


2.1.1    Declarative assignment………………..


2.1.2    Graphs……………………….


Probing further: Relations ………………….


2.1.3    Tables………………………..


2.1.4    Procedures……………………..


2.1.5    Composition…………………….


Probing further: Declarative interpretation of imperative definitions


2.1.6    Declarative vs. imperative………………


2.2    Defining signals……………………….


2.2.1    Declarative definitions………………..


2.2.2    Imperative definitions ………………..


2.2.3    Physical modeling………………….


Probing further: Physics of a Tuning Fork…………..


2.3    Defining systems………………………


2.3.1    Memoryless systems…………………


2.3.2    Differential equations…………………


2.3.3    Difference equations…………………

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