Statistics for Environmental Engineers

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Rao, C. R. (1965). Linear Statistical Inference and Its Applications, New York, John Wiley.


SAS Institute Inc. (1982). SAS User’s Guide: Statistics, Cary, NC.


Scheffe, H. (1959). The Analysis of Variance, New York, John Wiley.

Exercises


26.1    Dioxin and Furan Sampling. Reinterpret the Pallesen example in the text after pooling the higher-order interactions to estimate the error variance according to your own judgment.


26.2    Ammonia Analysis. The data below are the percent recovery of 2 mg/L of ammonia (as NH3-N) added to wastewater final effluent and tap water. Is there any effect of pH before distillation or water type?


pH Before    Final Effluent    Tap Water


Distillation


(initial


conc. =


13.8 mg/L)


(initial


conc. <


0.1 mg/L)


9.5a


98


98


100


96


97


95


6.0


100


88


101


98


96


96


6.5


102


99


98


98


93


94


7.0


98


99


99


95


95


97


7.5


105


103


101


97


94


98


8.0


102


101


99


95


98


94

a Buffered.


Source: Dhaliwal, B. S., J. WPCF, 57, 1036-1039.

27

Factorial Experimental Designs


KEY WORDS additivity, cube plot, density, design matrix, effect, factor, fly ash, factorial design, interaction, main effect, model matrix, normal order scores, normal plot, orthogonal, permeability, randomization, rankits, two-level design.

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