Statistics for Environmental Engineers

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Specimen


TKN


TSS


Muni.


Ind.


Comm.


Muni.


Ind.


Comm.


1


1109


940


1500


1850


1600


1600


2


1160


800


1215


2570


2100


1400


3


1200


800


1215


2080


2100


1400


4


1180


960


1155


2380


1600


1750


5


1160


1200


1120


2730


2100


2800


6


1180


1200


1120


3000


2700


2700


7


1130


900


1140


2070


1800


2000

9.5. Ruggedness Testing. Select an instrument or analytical method used in your laboratory and identify seven factors to evaluate in a ruggedness test.

10

Precision of Calculated Values


KEY WORDS additive error, alkalinity, calcium, corrosion, dilution, error transmission, glassware, hardness, Langlier stability index, LSI, measurement error, multiplicative error, precision, propagation of variance, propagation of error, random error, relative standard deviation, RSI, Ryzner stability index, saturation index, standard deviation, systematic error, titration, variance.


Engineers use equations to calculate the behavior of natural and constructed systems. An equation’s solid appearance misleads. Some of the variables put into the equation are measurements or estimates, perhaps estimated from an experiment or from experience reported in a handbook. Some of the constants in equations, like n, are known, but most are estimated values. Most of the time we ignore the fact that the calculated output of an equation is imprecise to some extent because the inputs are not known with certainty.

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