Statistics for Environmental Engineers

Скачать в pdf «Statistics for Environmental Engineers»


Collaborative trials are used to check for and enforce consistent quality across laboratories. The Youden pairs plot is an excellent graphical way to report a laboratory’s performance. This provides more information than reports of averages, standard deviations, and other statistics.


A ruggedness test is used to consider the effect of environmental factors on a test method. Systematic changes are made in variables associated with the test method and the associated changes in the test response are observed. The ruggedness test is done in a single laboratory so the effects are easier to see, and should precede the interlaboratory round-robin study.

References


APHA, AWWA, WEF (1998). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th ed., Clesceri, L. S., A. E. Greenberg, and A. D. Eaton, Eds.


ASTM (1990). Standard Guide for Conducting Ruggedness Tests, E 1169-89, Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office.


ASTM (1992). Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method, E691-92, Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office.


ASTM (1993). Standard Practice for Generation of Environmental Data Related to Waste Management Activities: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Planning and Implementation, D 5283, Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office.


Kateman, G. and L. Buydens (1993). Quality Control in Analytical Chemistry, 2nd ed., New York, John Wiley.


Maddelone, R. F., J. W. Scott, and J. Frank (1988). Round-Robin Study of Methods for Trace Metal Analysis: Vols. 1 and 2: Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy—Parts 1 and 2, EPRI CS-5910.


Maddelone, R. F., J. W. Scott, and N. T. Whiddon (1991). Round-Robin Study of Methods for Trace Metal Analysis, Vol. 3: Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, EPRI CS-5910.

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