Interdisciplinary Applied Mathematics

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18.1.5    Integration of the Models……………733


18.1.6    Examples……………………733


18.2    Macromodeling of Squeezed Film Damping ………745


18.2.1    Equivalent Circuit Models……………747


18.2.2    Galerkin Methods ……………….749


18.2.3    Mixed-Level Simulation…………….751


18.2.4    Black Box Models ……………….752


18.3    Compact Model for Electrowetting…………..753


18.4    Software………………………..754


Bibliography    757


Index    808

1

Basic Concepts and Technologies


In this chapter we highlight some of the concepts, devices, and modeling approaches that we shall discuss in more detail in all subsequent chapters. We have    included a section    on    the    pioneers    of the    field,    and    we    present


some of the key results that have had great impact on the development and the rapid growth of microfluidics and nanofluidics. Our emphasis is on fundamental concepts such as breakdown of constitutive laws, new flow regimes, and modeling issues encountered in flow microsystems. We also discuss fluid-surface interactions for liquids, such as electrokinetic effects and wetting, which become very important at very small scales. Finally, we address the question of full-system simulation of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and introduce the concept of macromodeling.

1.1 New Flow Regimes in Microsystems


Micron- and submicron-size mechanical and biochemical devices are becoming more prevalent both in commercial applications and in scientific inquiry. Small accelerometers with dimensions measured in microns are being used to deploy air bag systems in automobiles. Tiny pressure sensors for the tip of a catheter are smaller than the head of a pin. Microactuators are moving scanning electron microscope tips to image single atoms. Novel bioassays consisting of microfluidic networks are designed for patterned drug delivery. New fabrication techniques, such as surface silicon micromachining, bulk silicon micromachining, LIGA (Lithographie Galvanoformung Abformung), and EDM (Electro Discharge Machining) have been successfully applied to microfabrication in recent years, making these microdevices possible. The capability to batch fabricate and automate these fabrication technologies makes such microdevices inexpensive (Howe et al., 1990; Bryzek et al., 1994; Reed, 1993; Trimmer, 1997). New nanofabrication techniques have emerged exploiting the concept of self-assembly for submicron-size objects (Whitesides and Grzybowski, 2002; Doyle et al., 2002).

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